The UK and EU have now agreed the Trade and Co-operation Agreement (TCA) – a comprehensive free trade agreement providing for zero tariffs and quotas on the trade in goods of UK and EU origin. Despite the TCA, Northern Ireland’s position is also governed by the Northern Ireland Protocol to the 2019 Brexit Withdrawal Agreement. Like the TCA, this applies from 1 January 2021.
Under the Protocol, Northern Ireland will have the most complex VAT and customs regime in Europe. Businesses in, or trading with, Northern Ireland should ensure they have considered all relevant customs and VAT issues.
The VAT and customs implications of the Protocol are covered in this factsheet.